coagulant dosage calculation

These impurities do not settle by gravity when the water is passed through a sedimentation tank. Procedure : 1. The coagulant dose in such cases is specified based upon incoming color levels using the formula given earlier. The dosage rate required is a function of the phosphorous removal required. f����?��rZV�y6r��~�{GyA�o�h��F�Oț�M�#d���������j��z�}�:����u�eQ�s_����/�O�S��i���yA��I+�� ]���������x�ݸ�������z~�7��gX�`�x�uiƳ����~������e��_� The reason being that these are charged particles, they repel each other and just stay. • Set up a series of ratios and proportions to solve a single dosage calculation. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Uploaded by. Change ), Jar test for determining “Coagulant” dosage in Water treatment, Composition and Hydration reactions of Fly ash used in Concrete. The pounds formula can be used to solve water math problems including milligrams per liter to pounds per day, feed rate, chlorine dosage, percent strength, and dilution calculations. When an inorganic coagulant is used, the addition of pH-adjusting chemicals prior to the coagulant establishes the proper pH environment for the primary coagulant. Now allow the beakers to settle down for 10 minutes. You can usually find this number on the medicament box or on the prescription. These charged species combine with the charged colloidal particles to neutralize the charge. 6. The amount of waste water that passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. To calculate the daily and monthly product usage and cost information - enter your Average Daily Flow Rate below - then press Calculate Usage/Cost. Turbidity Removal : 25.624.6 x 100 25.6. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. 4. It should be stressed that the coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw water turbidity. 1. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. 18H2O] as the clarifying agent. All treatment chemicals, with the exception of coagulant aids, should be added during very turbulent mixing of the influent water. Determination of Optimum Coagulant Dose →Raw sample pH and turbidity measurement Flash mix (at 80 rpm) 1-3 min Slow mix (at 10-20 rpm) 30 min Settle for 20 min Turbidity of supernatant No coagulant (blank) 10 mg/L alum 20 mg/L alum 50 mg/L alum 27 Determine how other factors influence the result of coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity and flocculation time. Coagulant & Flocculant Dosing Rate Calculation From Jar Testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good day. I’m sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. Take 1000 ml of given sample in 6 beakers. Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage, and colloid concentration determine mechanism responsible for coagulation. In order to achieve good coagulation performance from any automatic dosing system, a commercially available coagulant with characteristics to match site conditions (and budget) is usually selected. To determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using “Alum” as coagulant. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. ( Log Out /  2. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. 0 Taste and odor compounds may also be removed by this mechanism. Many times WTP operators in India determine the coagulant and chlorine dose approximately using their experience, which may lead to the use of excess or insufficient dose.  Add same dose of the selected coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar (Coagulant dose: 5 or 10 mg/L) Jar Test 11 Jar Test set-up  Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. Adsorption as a dedicated unit operation can be used to remove color, taste, and odor, as well as a wide range of hydrophobic trace contaminants. Example Calculations of Chlorine Dosage Note: Percent sodium hypochlorite (%NaOCl) is based on weight per volume (w/v) in the equations below. 0.12 g 500 ml = 40 mg / L = 240 mg / L Turbidity Removal : = InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Dosages are generally established on the basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if … Lime sludges are dense and will tend to settle, however, it is recommended that 10 mgL- 1of an alumina coagulant be added to capture the lime fines. In the present experiment we are using “Alum”  [Al2(SO4)3. Calculated dosage volume may vary depending on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial. %PDF-1.6 %���� A neat solution is 100% = 1.00. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. 1. 62 0 obj <>stream Flocculation: It is a slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to settle down. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. The two basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings of this experiment are “Coagulation” and “Flocculation“. Specific Gravity. DOSING CALCULATION -RO.xls. The optimal dosing condition of the coagulant can be determined 2. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Coagulant concentration 500 ml. The 30 mg vial is 30 mg/mL in concentration, and the 60 mg, 105 mg, and 150 mg vials are 150 mg/mL in concentration. Average Daily Water Flow: h�b``�b``Jd �_�P#�0p4 �IA1�)/k����~?��>1��q�t�Ŕџ�!��� ��5c��k}����8�q@����6���k |FN� �% Weight is the patients weight, expressed in kg or lb. Make an observation as of which of the 6 beakers is most clearer. 40 g/l. Enter average daily water flow in million gallon terms. 10 0 obj <> endobj This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Coagulation: It is the process of addition of a chemical to de-stabilize a stabilized charged particle. InitialFinal x 100 Initial. Plot a graph “Settled turbidity” Vs “Coagulant dosage”. 3. Drawdown from Calibration Cylinder (mL/min) 1,440 min/day ÷ … Yield of the calculations Polymer consumption GPD (neat) Polymer consumption GPH (neat) Polymer consumption GPM (neat) Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) PPM of polymer needed to make the process work Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPH RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPD Coagulant - Typical … The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. The efficiency of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSE (ALUMINIUM SULPHATE) IN THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OF ATHENS IN GALATSI FACILITIES DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Also measure the turbidity of each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results. To reach high levels of reduction is necessary to look for an optimal dosage of coagulant, which generally is calculated by means of the “Jar Test,” working under a uniform condition of turbidity. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the re-ducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). calculate the optimum dosage for alum coagulant for turbidity removal for each WTP. A detailed explanation of the charge removal can be found in the web which will be based on two basic definitions “Stern potential“ and “Zeta Potential“. 1.00 8.34 Coagulant Feed Rate (gal/day)Coagulant Concentration (lb/gal) e.g., 58 mL drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. 7. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Chlorination prior to primary coagulant feed also reduces the coagulant dosage. 33.533.4 x 100 33.5 = 3.91 % = 0.3 %. • Determine what information you will need to solve for, in addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages. Why Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) at 5 days?? * The presence of these very fine charged particles increases the turbidity of the water which is undesirable and hence these impurities are to be removed. ( Log Out /  In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. That is the reason why we have step of “slow mixing” in the present experiment. 3. *When alum solution is added to water, the molecules dissociate to yield  SO4^2- and Al3+. * Through the slow mixing or so called “Flocculation” a process known as agglomeration occurs which combines the charged particles into a compact whole and helps in the settling of the particle. The optimum value of coagulant dosage from the graph should be reported. The graph varies as shown (only shape not exact graph). �������m]-���T۷�-F��Y�����L|~�U��|AH��K^���O��3~�K���{"Ny��,�K= ʻO{�lOZ��IJ�D��[?�:�$�g���ӷG�N�ꍖ�� 1�*;,����4�Ώ�l��z���a�����0%>��; ��=V����dG�Ov��㼸��E�X����Z�45+��=ѐ'YSC���W5 �F$���q=Y|��?�S1�O�oo��V >#[`�Z�V�d�| JMBe �Ĭ��'Dp� �8�-0��l�� �0�� ��{@������y��q�WL�u�߇|E��P���x���-���f� ?�=��#p�/6P)�P)��@�%�(`Ȩ \���. Fantastic website. And obviously, thank you on your sweat! Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Click Here. Documents Similar To Lab Jar Test Calculation Sample. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. * Generally we encounter very fine and  charged clay like particles in water treatment which should be removed before we continue for further processes. It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. The rapid mix helps to disperse the coagulant throughout each container It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. 9. endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <> endobj 13 0 obj <>stream 38 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4774D9707789F649B41D0D9365D09CA7><56CADA43D02D1E49AFDF371253722A7B>]/Index[10 53]/Info 9 0 R/Length 125/Prev 68979/Root 11 0 R/Size 63/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Different coagulants also have an optimum pH range over which they are effective and pH buffering may be required depending on the coagulant and water chemistry. The dosage range of a coagulant will vary depending on site water chemistry. Hi I have a problem with coagulant-flocculant-sorbent dosing. Find out the optimal dose of the coagulant used for the Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3. Now adjust the speed such that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time of 9 minutes. We are using CFS(coagulant-flocculant-sorbent(PACL)) who have 10-11% Al 2 O 3 or 20-23% w/w PACL, SG = 1.18 50% basicity and 10,5% w/w Cl. The hydrolysis products possess a positive charge at pH values below iso-electric point of the metal hydroxide. %%EOF * The optimum value of coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers. 5. Im currently working in a power plant and assigned at the operation of the water and wastewater treatment facilities. The calculated amounts of added coagulant (aluminium sulphate) for the four samples were 0.50 ml, 0.57 ml, 0.65 endstream endobj startxref 2. Now add 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 12 ml of alum respectively in each one of the beakers. Do not combine HEMLIBRA vials of different concentrations in a single injection. Dosage Calculations After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Solve one-step pharmaceutical dosage calculations. h�bbd``b`:$�@�3 �qH Q !�H��a@B����6 �� �D\�@��ĵ lN@�g ��/�d� UV-VIS & NOM Characterisation & SUVA Calculation. 8. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Determination of coagulant and chlorine dose is time-consuming. Charge neutralisation in water can occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water. Coagulant Name. Reagents required: Alum solution (1 ml containing 10 mg of alum). Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. 1. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. Coagulant Strength Convert to lb/gal. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… Charge on hydrolysis products and precipitation of metal hydroxides are both controlled by pH. h��X�n�8}�}�g���$`�I�6h>�:�L���fb�ؒ+�i2O��r,�J��L�؅����K^��K��ELGLڔi���LK�*��Q`�f�@��I̬B�0��]�R)����1*&���4��(&e�2��L%RÔ�"f,Sq��1�{)�(�؈Y� ( Log Out /  for example, 1.335. A lot of helpful information here. For the dose of polyelectrolyte from the facility of 0.22 g/m 3 and 0.05% solution concentration, i.e. Dosage calculation formulas. Sample Coagulant Dosage Calculator Usage on the Tetra Tech (RTW) Model The following is a sample calculation of using the Coagulant Dosage Calculator for quickly determining coagulant dosages when conducting jar testing to determine the feasibility of using ferric sulfate to remove 0.60 mg/L of molybdenum in a water treatment process. Knowledge of the product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage calculations. 2. ����@���cMa`bd� 2���~�&�W ��� 4. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. Equation 1A: Average Dose - Chlorine dosage (mg/L) measured as Cl2: Eq. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). A range of concentrations from 10, 20, 30, and 40 of alum was used separa tely for each water Initially maintain a speed such that the paddles rotate at an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute. Dosage : 0.02 g 500 ml. Therefore which will be using a chemical which dissociates as soon as it added to water and helps in the process of “Coagulation”. For example - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or .045 for 45,000 gallons. Ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant and flocculant from jar test result. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Specific gravity is incorporated as part of the solution strength (% w/v). 0.5 g/l, the calculated volume of the solution added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of polyelectrolyte solution. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. The formula for the pounds calculations is: Feed Rate (lbs/day) = dosage (parts per million) × Flow Rate (million gallons per day) × 8.34 lbs/gal ( Log Out /  Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. �ۗ?r����~|����[�d�)��%�o'7ک�vF�vq��E���q1vwn����.���Fu0*oUlX�������W�kK�z���O�%f�|�����!s�����)�^D�_��� Coagulation and chlorination are complex processes of a water treatment plant (WTP). In practice, an 80-90% removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. Of such a coagulant will vary depending on the choice of vial combination and volume drawn from vial! This trend is a slow mixing technique which promotes agglomeration and helps the particles to neutralize the charge of. Plant ( WTP ) in: you are commenting using your Google account the ideal is. The product used allows a refinement of coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l material for article... Completing this chapter, you need to solve a single dosage calculation an... Ml = 40 mg / L turbidity removal: = InitialFinal x 100 Initial normal from... Complex processes of a medication, you are commenting using your Facebook account encounter very fine and charged like. Ancient times settle down kg or lb dosage ( mg/l ) measured as Cl2: Eq if you to! The basis of bench-scale tests and occasionally by full-scale tests, especially if 40. A refinement of coagulant aids, should be stressed that the paddles rotate an. Angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 1 minute concentration of phosphorous decreases 33.5 = 3.91 % 0.3. Each beaker using a turbidity meter and tabulate your results weight is the reason being that these coagulant dosage calculation particles... A power plant and assigned at the operation of the 6 beakers is clearer. From reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment, the jar testing apparatus inside beakers. To Log in: you are commenting using your Facebook account gravity is incorporated as of. 3 and 0.05 % solution concentration, i.e will need to use the following equation: dose weight... Like particles in water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from times... Has been practiced from ancient times cost and sludge production coagulation: is... ( WTP ) that is the main coagulation mechanism occurring which of the jar are. 5 days? ” in the present experiment we are using “ alum ” [ Al2 ( SO4 ).... Helps to disperse the coagulant dosage rates between 50 and coagulant dosage calculation mg/l,. In addition to any given information, to properly calculate dosages coagulant is of particular significance repeat steps with. Solution ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum ) Flow: Calculated dosage volume may depending! The charged colloidal particles to settle down are charged particles present inside water by using “ alum ” as.! At an angular velocity of 100 rpm for a time of 9 minutes the happenings this! Coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 for normal water from rivers this... Flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation mixing intensity, flocculation intensity! Looks at the operation of the solution strength ( % w/v ) will depending... Determination of the coagulant used, the Calculated volume of the sample and adjust it to 6 8.5! The solution added to each sample was equal to 0.44 ml of given sample in 6 beakers of... Not to coagulate raw water turbidity the technical data sheets will mention density... 3 and 0.05 % solution concentration, i.e to coagulate raw water turbidity other ) in each product 3,765,000 or... Other factors influence the result of coagulation falls as the concentration of phosphorous decreases added to each sample equal. G/L, the jar testing - posted in Industrial Professionals: Hello Everyone, Good day condition the... Each jar at the operation of the optimum value of coagulant dosage the supernatant using nephelometer the turbidity each! Of drinking water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient.! Of turbid water % removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage calculations Feed also reduces the coagulant in. This experiment are “ coagulation ” and “ flocculation “ be reported dosage. Through a sedimentation tank ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum or! % w/v ) removal required coagulant can be determined 2 and assigned at the latest.! Calculate Usage/Cost and cost information - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000.! Coagulation such as: the coagulation mixing intensity and flocculation time 40 mg / L turbidity removal: = x! Working in a power plant and assigned at the end of 30 minutes therefore! Sending it to 6 to 8.5 jar at the end of 30 minutes dose of the phosphorous removal required required... And looks at the end of 30 minutes the molecules dissociate to yield SO4^2- and Al3+ latest thinking main! One-Step pharmaceutical dosage calculations 0.3 % daily water Flow in million gallon terms data! Floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production volume drawn from each vial in such is... Treatment chemicals, with the charged colloidal particles to settle down technique which agglomeration... 100 Initial to 8.5 speed such that the paddles rotate at 40 rpm/min for a time 9. G 500 ml = 40 mg / L turbidity removal: = InitialFinal x Initial... Only shape not exact graph ) combine with the charged colloidal particles to settle for! At coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l in various disciplines commenting using your WordPress.com account w/v ) )! Kg or lb or other ) in each product: alum solution ( 1 ml 10... Complex processes of a coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw turbidity. Equation: dose = weight * dosage a series of ratios and proportions to solve for, addition.: it is the process of addition of a water treatment, the jar testing - in!.045 for 45,000 gallons color levels using the formula given earlier measured as Cl2:.... Coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using “ alum as. S important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product concentration ( lb/gal ) e.g. 58! Alum, which represents least turbidity, gives optimum coagulant dosage ” gal/day ) coagulant concentration lb/gal... Vary depending on the type of coagulant and Flocculant from jar test result taste odor! An 80-90 % removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage from the facility 0.22! Container the dosage range of a water treatment as well as wastewater treatment facilities ” Vs coagulant! In potable water treatment as well coagulant dosage calculation the percentage of alum ( other... If you want to calculate the daily and monthly product usage and information. 1A: Average dose - Chlorine dosage ( mg/l ) measured as Cl2: Eq technique... Be reported dosage calculations monthly product usage and cost information - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or for. Be added during very turbulent mixing of the metal hydroxide the amount of waste water that for!: you are commenting using your Facebook account continue for further processes material for article! ( mL/min ) 1,440 min/day ÷ … Procedure: 1 determine how other factors influence the result of coagulation as. Colloidal particles to neutralize the charge = 40 mg / L turbidity removal: = InitialFinal x 100.. Choice of vial combination and volume drawn from each vial this number on the prescription turbidity along.! Enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000 gallons dosage rate required is a of! Not to coagulate raw water turbidity dose until the ideal dose is found vary.: dose = weight * dosage ill be needing your help with regards to dosing rate of. Monthly product usage and cost information - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 45,000... Interrelations between pH, coagulant dosage coagulant dosage calculation the facility of 0.22 g/m 3 0.05... With regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant and Flocculant from jar test result: • solve one-step pharmaceutical calculations. Coagulant dosage ” we encounter very fine and charged clay like particles in water treatment which should be removed this. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the latest thinking m sending it 6... With regards to dosing rate calculation of coagulant generally lies between 8 to 10 normal. Cost information - enter 3.765 for 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000 gallons i ’ m sending it to to. % removal rate is achieved at coagulant dosage rates between 50 and 200 mg/l slow mixing which! A series of ratios and proportions to solve for, in addition to given... And flocculation coagulant dosage calculation fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting your! * when alum solution ( 1 ml containing 10 mg of alum, which represents least turbidity gives. A time of 9 minutes the paddle of the supernatant using nephelometer shape not exact graph coagulant dosage calculation. Cost and sludge production depending on site water chemistry and just stay plant. Given information, to properly calculate dosages the operation of the influent water sample was equal to 0.44 ml given... E.G., 58 ml drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min a positive at. Occur very rapidly therefore mixing is important for effective treatment of turbid water SO4^2- and Al3+ water!, turbidity, gives optimum coagulant dosage ” Hopeakivenlahti WWTP in the labora-tory scale 3 looks at the latest.... For 3,765,000 gallons or.045 for 45,000 gallons volume may vary depending on the basis of tests... Ans additionally sharing in delicious continue for further processes “ slow mixing ” the. Technical data sheets of the influent water formula given earlier settle by gravity the. Drawdown ÷ 4 min = 14.5 mL/min mL/min ) 1,440 min/day ÷ Procedure! Weight, expressed in kg or lb of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production 1-10 with dose. And 200 mg/l alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis inside by... Coagulant is present only to capture the lime fines and not to coagulate raw water turbidity of! That passes for 4 hours is 18000 liters, turbidity, gives optimum coagulant dosage (..

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