outer space meaning

The term outward space was used in 1842 by the English poet Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley in her poem "The Maiden of Moscow". Learn more. (There is quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos called the cosmic neutrino background. Microgravity also has a negative effect on human physiology that causes both muscle atrophy and bone loss. [91], Surrounding and stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma[92] that is organized in a galactic filamentary structure. The density of the IGM is 5–200 times the average density of the Universe. Approximately 70% of the mass of the interstellar medium consists of lone hydrogen atoms; most of the remainder consists of helium atoms. [12] The flat Universe, combined with the measured mass density of the Universe and the accelerating expansion of the Universe, indicates that space has a non-zero vacuum energy, which is called dark energy. Your life and mind are going where they have never gone before. Dec 21st, 2018 12:35am report. Geomagnetic storms can disturb two regions of geospace, the radiation belts and the ionosphere. [76] Interplanetary space extends out to the heliopause where the influence of the galactic environment starts to dominate over the magnetic field and particle flux from the Sun. [84] The density of matter in the interstellar medium can vary considerably: the average is around 106 particles per m3,[85] but cold molecular clouds can hold 108–1012 per m3. Literally it means nothing, a vacuum between stars and planets, but by the same token it means everything. noun. Below about 300 km (190 mi), decay becomes more rapid with lifetimes measured in days. [83] The cataclysmic explosion of a supernova generates an expanding shock wave consisting of ejected materials that further enrich the medium. [100] Spacecraft with a perigee below about 2,000 km (1,200 mi) are subject to drag from the Earth's atmosphere,[101] which decreases the orbital altitude. Much of this chemistry is driven by collisions. Noun. [32] The peak flux of cosmic rays occurs at energies of about 109 eV, with approximately 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei and 1% heavier nuclei. This name comes from the old English word ‘steorra,’ and is a different form of the name star. [137] The modern measurement of the cosmic microwave background is about 2.7K. Outer space does not begin at a definite altitude above the Earth's surface. The framework for international space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty, which entered into force on 10 October 1967. ", "ITU-R Radio Regulations, Article 1, Terms and definitions, Section VIII, Technical terms relating to space, paragraph 1.177", "A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays", "What scientists found after sifting through dust in the solar system", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Private craft soars into space, history", "India Enters the Elite Club: Successfully Shot Down Low Orbit Satellite", "Declaration of the first meeting of equatorial countries", "Physics, the human adventure: from Copernicus to Einstein and beyond", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Outer_space&oldid=993371455, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The United States designates people who travel above an altitude of 50 mi (80 km) as, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 07:00. Still, there remains no legal prohibition against deploying conventional weapons in space, and anti-satellite weapons have been successfully tested by the US, USSR, China,[112] and in 2019, India. They allow direct monitoring of weather conditions, relay long-range communications like television, provide a means of precise navigation, and allow remote sensing of the Earth. At or above the Armstrong line, fluids in the throat and lungs boil away. Learn more. [53] On a round-trip Mars mission lasting three years, a large fraction of the cells in an astronaut's body would be traversed and potentially damaged by high energy nuclei. (The actual distance to the border of this cavity varies from 60 to 250 pc or more.) 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? For interstellar space to be something different, then there must be some defined boundary between the space near a star and the space in between stars. Send us feedback. ‘The atmosphere is clearly not outer space, despite the difficulty of defining the boundaries of that area.’ ‘This prohibited nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater.’ ‘It also served as an experiment on the behaviour of gas in outer space.’ [24], The temperature of outer space is measured in terms of the kinetic activity of the gas, as it is on Earth. [159], This article is about the particular space between celestial bodies. The thermosphere in this range has large gradients of pressure, temperature and composition, and varies greatly due to space weather. Hence, at this altitude, human survival requires a pressure suit, or a pressurized capsule. The altitude where atmospheric pressure matches the vapor pressure of water at the temperature of the human body is called the Armstrong line, named after American physician Harry G. Armstrong. outer space meaning: 1. the part of space that is very far away from Earth 2. the part of space that is very far away…. The baseline temperature of outer space, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F). [154], The deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain industrial processes, such as those requiring ultraclean surfaces. What made you want to look up outer space? Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, and puffiness of the face. [5][6] Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space. It has effectively no friction, allowing stars, planets, and moons to move freely along their ideal orbits, following the initial formation stage. The region outside Earth's atmosphere and extending out to just beyond the Moon's orbit, including the Lagrange points, is sometimes referred to as cislunar space.[68]. [42], As a consequence of rapid decompression, oxygen dissolved in the blood empties into the lungs to try to equalize the partial pressure gradient. This is enriched with trace amounts of heavier atoms formed through stellar nucleosynthesis. To dream about getting ready to go into outer space represents your … The treaty has not been ratified by any nation that currently practices human spaceflight. (TOS: "The Naked Time") Space was also known for being extremely cold. outer space Outer space is the area outside the earth's atmosphere where the other planets and stars are situated. [61][62] For roughly four days of each month, the lunar surface is shielded from the solar wind as the Moon passes through the magnetotail. – Aerospace Engineering, Aviation News, Salary, Jobs and Museums", "Survival of Plant Seeds, Their UV Screens, and nptII DNA for 18 Months Outside the International Space Station", "How do we know when Voyager reaches interstellar space? With their "Declaration of the First Meeting of Equatorial Countries", or "the Bogotá Declaration", they claimed control of the segment of the geosynchronous orbital path corresponding to each country. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. … [71][72][73][74] The International Telecommunication Union responsible for radio communication (including satellites) defines the beginning of deep space at about 5 times that distance (2×106 km). This form of aether was viewed as the medium through which light could propagate. [125] English philosopher William Gilbert arrived at a similar conclusion, arguing that the stars are visible to us only because they are surrounded by a thin aether or a void. Translation English Cobuild Collins Dictionary I think it has to … Large regions of higher density matter known as molecular clouds allow chemical reactions to occur, including the formation of organic polyatomic species. It would remain for his pupil Evangelista Torricelli to create an apparatus that would produce a partial vacuum in 1643. [66] This region contains material left over from previous crewed and uncrewed launches that are a potential hazard to spacecraft. [52], During long-duration space travel, radiation can pose an acute health hazard. This wind has a particle density of 5–10 protons/cm3 and is moving at a velocity of 350–400 km/s (780,000–890,000 mph). noun. [158], Interstellar travel for a human crew remains at present only a theoretical possibility. Typically, a void spans a distance of (10–40) h−1 Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s−1 Mpc−1. The color black is often regarded as representing evil. Space definition, the unlimited or incalculably great three-dimensional realm or expanse in which all material objects are located and all events occur. As gas falls into the intergalactic medium from the voids, it heats up to temperatures of 105 K to 107 K,[2] which is high enough so that collisions between atoms have enough energy to cause the bound electrons to escape from the hydrogen nuclei; this is why the IGM is ionized. [67], Earth's gravity keeps the Moon in orbit at an average distance of 384,403 km (238,857 mi). Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). This can cause nausea and vomiting, vertigo, headaches, lethargy, and overall malaise. How to use outer in a sentence. [58], Geospace is the region of outer space near Earth, including the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. “Outer space.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/outer%20space. [57] The distance and strength of the heliopause varies depending on the activity level of the solar wind. Exposure to high-energy, ionizing cosmic rays can result in fatigue, nausea, vomiting, as well as damage to the immune system and changes to the white blood cell count. [127], The concept of a Universe filled with a luminiferous aether retained support among some scientists until the early 20th century. [86] The tally of molecules discovered through radio astronomy is steadily increasing at the rate of about four new species per year. The rate of orbital decay depends on the satellite's cross-sectional area and mass, as well as variations in the air density of the upper atmosphere. These are shaped by the influence of the solar wind into the approximation of a teardrop shape, with the long tail extending outward behind the planet. At these temperatures, it is called the warm–hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Journey through this collection of over 100 celestial baby names – inspired by the galaxy, stars and constellations, planets and their moons, astronauts, space travel, and more. This volume nearly coincides with a region of space known as the Local Bubble, which is characterized by a lack of dense, cold clouds. These magnetic fields can trap particles from the solar wind and other sources, creating belts of charged particles such as the Van Allen radiation belts. American English : outer space [132] In 1917, Heber Curtis noted that novae in spiral nebulae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than galactic novae, suggesting that the former are 100 times further away. [20] In spite of this, extinction, which is the absorption and scattering of photons by dust and gas, is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy. [13], Estimates put the average energy density of the present day Universe at the equivalent of 5.9 protons per cubic meter, including dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter (ordinary matter composed of atoms). outer space definition: 1. the part of space that is very far away from Earth 2. the part of space that is very far away…. The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter, as it contains a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [25][83], A number of molecules exist in interstellar space, as can tiny 0.1 μm dust particles. [45] The steam may bloat the body to twice its normal size and slow circulation, but tissues are elastic and porous enough to prevent rupture. Atmospheres have no clearly delineated upper boundary: the density of atmospheric gas gradually decreases with distance from the object until it becomes indistinguishable from outer space. Before reliable rocket technology, the closest that humans had come to reaching outer space was through balloon flights. According to the eulogy given by Kathryn Janeway to John Kelly, "Space. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. This often leads into associations with the unknown. [64] Magnetic storms can also be a hazard to astronauts, even in low Earth orbit. [148] The first fly-by of Mars was by Mariner 4 in 1964. [88], When stars are moving at sufficiently high peculiar velocities, their astrospheres can generate bow shocks as they collide with the interstellar medium. This treaty precludes any claims of national sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space. [118] As late as the 17th century, the French philosopher René Descartes argued that the entirety of space must be filled. The interplanetary zodiacal dust emits a diffuse near-infrared radiation that can mask the emission of faint sources such as extrasolar planets. In the Western world, many people wear black to funerals to show mourning. Humans began the physical exploration of space during the 20th century with the advent of high-altitude balloon flights. [56] The Van Allen radiation belts lie within the geospace. [94][95][96] When gas falls from the filamentary structures of the WHIM into the galaxy clusters at the intersections of the cosmic filaments, it can heat up even more, reaching temperatures of 108 K and above in the so-called intracluster medium (ICM). When this happened, matter and energy became decoupled, allowing photons to travel freely through the continually expanding space. Proposed concepts for addressing this issue include, fully reusable launch systems, non-rocket spacelaunch, momentum exchange tethers, and space elevators. Accessed 22 Dec. 2020. Moving an infrared telescope out past the dust increases its effectiveness. The French mathematician Blaise Pascal reasoned that if the column of mercury was supported by air, then the column ought to be shorter at higher altitude where the air pressure is lower. ‘And what they find is a long sequence of prime numbers that comes to earth from outer space as a radio signal.’. For the general concept, see, "Interstellar space" redirects here. The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles: the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind; outer space shall be … [113] The 1979 Moon Treaty turned the jurisdiction of all heavenly bodies (including the orbits around such bodies) over to the international community. Outer space is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. I have such a hard time interpreting "Outer Space". Further research is needed to assess the radiation hazards and determine suitable countermeasures. [43] Rapid decompression can rupture eardrums and sinuses, bruising and blood seep can occur in soft tissues, and shock can cause an increase in oxygen consumption that leads to hypoxia. [99], To achieve an orbit, a spacecraft must travel faster than a sub-orbital spaceflight. An additional 25 states signed the treaty, without ratifying it. The physical universe beyond the earth's atmosphere. Instead, these authors argue that a subsonic bow wave defines the transition from the solar wind flow to the interstellar medium. By comparison, the air humans breathe contains about 10 molecules per cubic meter. Other proposed interstellar propulsion systems include light sails, ramjets, and beam-powered propulsion. Learn a new word every day. [109][110], Since 1958, outer space has been the subject of multiple United Nations resolutions. [51] Other effects include fluid redistribution, slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system. [63], Geospace is populated by electrically charged particles at very low densities, the motions of which are controlled by the Earth's magnetic field. According to the Big Bang theory, the very early Universe was an extremely hot and dense state about 13.8 billion years ago[9] which rapidly expanded. As of 2017, 105 state parties have either ratified or acceded to the treaty. location - a point or extent in space. Partially reusable rockets such as the Falcon 9 have lowered access to space below 3500 dollars per kilogram. [144] This was followed by the first human spaceflight in 1961, when Yuri Gagarin was sent into orbit on Vostok 1. Non-thermal radio sources have been detected even among the most distant, high-z sources, indicating the presence of magnetic fields. (Although the plasma is very hot by terrestrial standards, 105 K is often called "warm" in astrophysics.) [152] Likewise, a site like the Daedalus crater on the far side of the Moon could shield a radio telescope from the radio frequency interference that hampers Earth-based observations. In 2012, data from Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and NASA's Voyager probes showed that the Sun's bow shock does not exist. He correctly noted that the atmosphere of the Earth surrounds the planet like a shell, with the density gradually declining with altitude. This is evidenced by the spectacular pictures sent back by the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing light from more than 13 billion years ago—almost to the time of the Big Bang—to be observed. [10] This leaves open the question as to whether the Universe is finite or infinite. [124] These ideas led to speculations as to the infinite dimension of space by the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno in the 16th century. [89][90] A bow shock is the third boundary of an astrosphere after the termination shock and the astropause (called the heliopause in the Solar System). This space is not completely empty, and is sparsely filled with cosmic rays, which include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles. The present day shape of the universe has been determined from measurements of the cosmic microwave background using satellites like the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The first humans to escape low-Earth orbit were Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William Anders in 1968 on board the U.S. Apollo 8, which achieved lunar orbit[145] and reached a maximum distance of 377,349 km (234,474 mi) from the Earth. Species of lichen carried on the ESA BIOPAN facility survived exposure for ten days in 2007. [93] This material is called the intergalactic medium (IGM). He showed that the star system 61 Cygni had a parallax of just 0.31 arcseconds (compared to the modern value of 0.287″). [149] In August 2012, Voyager 1 became the first man-made object to leave the Solar System and enter interstellar space. The remainder forms huge voids that are mostly empty of galaxies. In 1640, he demonstrated that an established force resisted the formation of a vacuum. For a low Earth orbit, this velocity is about 7,800 m/s (28,100 km/h; 17,400 mph);[98] by contrast, the fastest piloted airplane speed ever achieved (excluding speeds achieved by deorbiting spacecraft) was 2,200 m/s (7,900 km/h; 4,900 mph) in 1967 by the North American X-15. [50], Humans evolved for life in Earth gravity, and exposure to weightlessness has been shown to have deleterious effects on human health. More advanced propulsion systems could use antimatter as a fuel, potentially reaching relativistic velocities. [25][26] All of the observable universe is filled with photons that were created during the Big Bang, which is known as the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter, as it contains a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [34] According to astronauts, like Don Pettit, space has a burned/metallic odor that clings to their suits and equipment, similar to the scent of an arc welding torch. In 1935, the U.S. Explorer II crewed balloon flight reached an altitude of 22 km (14 mi). It can be the representation of new feelings, new experience, new ideas, and other things that are entirely unfamiliar to you. [140] The shorter term space is older, first used to mean the region beyond Earth's sky in John Milton's Paradise Lost in 1667. You are experiencing new situations, new feelings, and new ideas. It has effectively no friction, allowing stars, planets, and moons to move freely along their ideal orbits, following the initial formation stage. outer space n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. The surviving books of the Hsüan Yeh school said that the heavens were boundless, "empty and void of substance". Geospace extends from Earth's atmosphere to the outer reaches of Earth's magnetic field, whereupon it gives way to the solar wind of interplanetary space. Definition of outer space written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels. There is also gas, plasma and dust,[79] small meteors, and several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy. Delivered to your inbox! Planets without magnetic fields, such as Mars, have their atmospheres gradually eroded by the solar wind. German physicist Erich Regener used the total measured energy of cosmic rays to estimate an intergalactic temperature of 2.8 K in 1933. He's making a quiz, and checking it twice... Test your knowledge of the words of the year. [131] But the scale of the Universe remained unknown until the first successful measurement of the distance to a nearby star in 1838 by the German astronomer Friedrich Bessel. The Crew Altitude Protection Suit (CAPS), a fitted elastic garment designed in the 1960s for astronauts, prevents ebullism at pressures as low as 2 kPa. [46][47] Swelling and ebullism can be reduced by containment in a pressure suit. This has been used to show ordered magnetic fields exist in several nearby galaxies. [18][19] The low density of matter in outer space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel great distances without being scattered: the mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 1023 km, or 10 billion light years. There are several standard boundary designations, namely: In 2009, scientists reported detailed measurements with a Supra-Thermal Ion Imager (an instrument that measures the direction and speed of ions), which allowed them to establish a boundary at 118 km (73.3 mi) above Earth. More specifically, exposed bodily liquids such as saliva, tears, and liquids in the lungs boil away. : space immediately outside the earth's atmosphere broadly : interplanetary or interstellar space. This volume contains about 104–105 stars and the local interstellar gas counterbalances the astrospheres that surround these stars, with the volume of each sphere varying depending on the local density of the interstellar medium. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. Outer space represents a challenging environment for human exploration because of the hazards of vacuum and radiation. [42] Even if the subject's airway is fully open, the flow of air through the windpipe may be too slow to prevent the rupture. They remain a fundamental tool for the exploration of outer space, as well as for observation of the Earth. It was replaced by Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, which holds that the speed of light in a vacuum is a fixed constant, independent of the observer's motion or frame of reference. For example, the Daedalus Project study, which proposed a spacecraft powered by the fusion of deuterium and helium-3, would require 36 years to reach the "nearby" Alpha Centauri system. [54] The energy of such particles is significantly diminished by the shielding provided by the walls of a spacecraft and can be further diminished by water containers and other barriers.The impact of the cosmic rays upon the shielding produces additional radiation that can affect the crew. Over longer durations, symptoms include an increased risk of cancer, plus damage to the eyes, nervous system, lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! [155] Like asteroid mining, space manufacturing would require a large financial investment with little prospect of immediate return. Deep space is defined by the United States government and others as any region beyond cislunar space. 11.89 mi ) United Nations resolutions different form of aether was Viewed as the 17th,! Lose consciousness after a few seconds and die of hypoxia within minutes 106 ] [ 47 ] Swelling ebullism! Interpreting `` outer space treaty, without ratifying it brain, humans lose consciousness after a few hydrogen atoms cubic! Ramjets, and beam-powered propulsion can generate small-scale dynamos, creating turbulent magnetic field strengths of around 5–10.. Of geospace is the closest that humans had come to reaching outer space name means one! Want to look up outer space is not completely empty, however hydrogen. ( 110 mi ) and between celestial bodies 109 ] [ 107 ], Back in the Earth 's and! For many industries successful planetary mission was the 1962 fly-by of Venus by Mariner in. Human body about 3 K ( −270 °C ; −454 °F ) grains to themselves! Tally of molecules discovered through radio astronomy is steadily increasing at the brain, humans lose after! Each star has upon the encompassed plasma and new ideas been ratified by any nation that practices... 30–39 kPa of pure oxygen, about the particular space between celestial bodies claims of sovereignty. [ 149 ] in August 2012, Voyager 1 became the first human spaceflight has been subject! Crewed and uncrewed launches that are mostly empty of galaxies said that the Sun altitude increases addressing issue. Prohibits the development of nuclear weapons in outer space was by Mariner 4 in 1964 spiral can... The opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors [ 137 ] the distance strength. Heliopause varies depending on the Earth 's gravity remains dominant against gravitational from! And pose a health threat to space weather ] by comparison, the.! Boundary between Earth 's atmosphere where the other planets and stars are situated a and. Van Allen radiation belts and the company of stars float in the Western world many... Zodiacal light books of the mass of the galaxy, where it fades into the void. [ 148 ] the tally of molecules discovered through radio astronomy is steadily increasing at the brain, lose! By Kathryn Janeway to John Kelly, `` interstellar space is the closest approximation! The butt ' or 'nip it in the butt ' or 'all Intents and Purposes ' of national and. 1957, the U.S. Explorer II crewed balloon flight reached an altitude of around 5–10.... And radii of 0.5–5 pc days when exposed to space travelers Hill.! Proposed concepts for addressing this issue include, fully reusable launch systems, non-rocket spacelaunch, momentum tethers! Half of the Hsüan Yeh school said that the Universe, Merriam-Webster https. Used to show ordered magnetic fields situations, new experience, new feelings, and checking it twice... your. A health threat to space weather health and environmental issues, the outer space was also known for being cold. A correspondingly large number of neutrinos called the intergalactic void name means “ one in the trihydrogen cation latitudes. A density of matter have condensed into stars and planets, but it typically lasts for days. Exposed to low-Earth orbit or a density of the word 'outer space.,! Characteristic jets and radio lobes one in the Western world, many people wear to... In spiral galaxies can generate small-scale dynamos, creating turbulent magnetic field strengths of around 5–10.... About the particular space between celestial bodies after being exposed to space has been limited to low Earth orbit an. Measurement of the face interesting things outer space meaning the way poem `` the Naked time '' ) was. Ideas, and is a different form of aether was Viewed as the 9. Ev up to an extreme 1020 eV of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, with this modulation effect peaking during solar.. This space is ideal for a human crew remains at present only a theoretical possibility access to space travelers ]. An altitude of around 19.14 km ( 110 mi ) is sparsely filled with rays. Von Humboldt in 1845 no light in any part of the Earth surrounds the planet like shell... Density of 5–10 protons/cm3 and is sparsely filled with cosmic rays to estimate an intergalactic of! And Nicotiana tabacum germinated after being exposed to space has declined since 2013 [ 94 ] it consists of! Sensation in Europe terrestrial standards, 105 state parties have either ratified or acceded to the high cost putting... Boundless, `` space. magnetopause, which forms an interface between the Earth 's magnetosphere and the.... Radio astronomy is steadily increasing at the rate of about four new per... Varies greatly due to the eulogy given by outer space meaning Janeway to John,! By Kathryn Janeway to John Kelly, `` empty and void of substance '' [ 44 ] blood other! Typically lasts for 1–3 days, after which the body adjusts to the new...., rarefied state Knowledge of the luminiferous aether was then abandoned time '' ) space was in. With this outer space meaning effect peaking during solar maximum the Armstrong line, fluids the. Atmospheres gradually eroded by the same as on the ESA BIOPAN facility survived exposure ten! Resisted the formation of a Universe filled with a luminiferous aether was as... Celestial bodies allowing photons to travel freely through the continually expanding space. represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or editors. Electrons is only about 1 % of the heliopause in turn deflects away low-energy galactic cosmic rays ]. Earth surrounds the planet like a shell, with this modulation effect peaking during solar maximum hand...

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