Blake and Mouton argue that managerial behavior is a function of two variables: concern for people and concern for production. Accordingly, leaders need to alter their leadership style (see Table 12.2). Though Fiedler’s theory has the largest research base, since it was formulated earliest, the Vroom-Yetton theory appears to offer the most promise for managerial training. This grid shown in Figure 12.3 is used all over the world for training managers and for identifying various combinations of leadership styles. Even though every member of the orchestra can play perfectly by themselves, they will only produce an incompatible melody in the absence of a conductor. If managers are flexible in their leadership style, they can be effective in a variety of leadership situations. These findings also show that individuals emerge as leaders … It includes telling people what to do, when to do it, how to do it, and who is to do it. 4. (b) The work environment, including such components as the task, the reward system, and the relationship with co-workers (see Figure 12.4). Fiedler’s model suggests that an appropriate match of the leader’s style (as measured by the LPC score) with the situation (as determined by the three dimensions – position power, task structure, leader-member relations) leads to effective managerial performance. The idea of the model is to reflect the belief that how management is defined is more complicated than any one single quality of "leadership." (b) Scores on the assumed similarity between opposites (ASO) scale – ratings based on the degree to which leaders identify group members as being like themselves. They allow subordinates to participate to some extent in decision-making but retain close policy control. We also discuss about Likert’s four systems of management and the Managerial Grid. However, as the leader becomes acquainted with the employees, he trusts them more. Like the Contingency Theory, the Situational Theory stresses the importance of situational variables and doesn't consider anyone's leadership style to be better than the others. No one trait was common to all effective leaders. The path-goal theory indicates that effective leadership is dependent on, firstly, clearly defining, for subordinates, the paths to goal attainment; and, secondly, the degree to which the leader is able to improve the chances that the subordinates will achieve their goals. Such managers may be dependable and may support the status quo, but are not likely to be dynamic leaders. 1. Here managers try to create a work atmosphere in which everyone is relaxed, friendly, and happy. They permit upward communication to a certain degree and ask for participation from subordinates. Put differently, the propose that a leader’s effectiveness is heavily determined by the situation he is in. It can result in increased motivation. It includes listening, facilitating and supportive behaviors. In the initial phase of ‘readiness’, the manager must spell out duties and responsibilities clearly for the group. (c) Valence (the perception regarding the outcomes or rewards). The leader need not be as task-oriented as before, but will still have to be supportive and considerate so that the employees can take on greater responsibilities. They believe that tasks need to be carefully explained and decisions endorsed by subordinates to achieve a high level of commitment. A detailed description of the two theories has been presented. Certain factors come into play that define whether a particular leader or leadership style will be effective for the given situation. This is the degree to which the power of a position enables a leader to get group members to obey instructions. That is why, many times, it is called as ‘Fiedler Cont… Two-Factor Theory It aims to analyse the causes of workers’ motivation and satisfaction in work. Everyone recognized that just as the name suggests; only a man could have the characteristic (s) of a great leader. The path-goal theory uses the expectancy theory of motivation to determine ways for a leader to make the achievement of work goals easier or more attractive. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. After reading some core theories in the study of leadership, now we would like to demonstrate to you how to apply a leadership theory, and use it to motivate your teammates. Trait Theories emphasize the traits or qualities of leaders, which lead to their lead to their effectiveness. Task-oriented leaders assign tasks, set deadlines, and follow structural processes. He regarded charisma as an adaptation of the theological concept of possessing divine grace. The reason for this is that even the most successful transformational leaders require transactional skills as well to effectively manage the day-to-day events that form the basis of a broader mission. Behavioral Theories: Theory of Leadership # 3. However, this model needs further testing before the approach can be used as a definitive guide for managerial action. More recently, researchers have identified the following key leadership traits: leadership motivation (having a desire to lead but not hungry for power), drive (including achievement, energy, ambition, initiative, and tenacity), honesty and integrity, self-confidence (including emotional stability), cognitive ability, and an understanding of the business. Transformational Leadership Theory. traits, behaviour and situation. They initiated the process by identifying a number of important leader behaviors. They concentrated on three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. It is a useful device for identifying and classifying managerial styles, but it does not tell us why a manager falls into one part or another of the grid. We will discuss each of these briefly. Hence, leadership is contingent upon these three variables and not styles. Leaders have confidence in the abilities of their followers. Report a Violation 11. Nothing stands in isolation and this can be demonstrated simply by looking at a colored sheet of paper and attempting to discern an image. The same applies to standing in a room in which all the objects are colored in the same hue. The Ohio State two-dimensional approach is shown in Figure 12.2. The two different variables for determining followers' maturity are: Task skills represent the work ability and knowledge of followers. (moderately important), Position power - how much formal authority is the leader given? They are important for practicing managers, who must consider the situation when they design an environment for performance. The other approaches to leadership such as behavioral or situational approaches typically focus on transactional leadership. He is happy to share his knowledge with others and loves to continually learn. The autocratic leader tends to make decisions without involving subordinates, spells out work methods, provides workers with very limited knowledge of goals, and sometimes gives negative feedback. House and Terence R. Mitchell. Moreover, many managers are not used to operating in a democratic mode. Depending on the degree of the managerial concern for people and production, a manager can fall anywhere on the grid. This puts the theory at odds with more mo… In other words, the readiness of employees refers to their willingness and ability to handle a particular task. The four major leadership theories being addressed are: (1) Transformational Leadership Theory, (2) Transactional Leadership Theory, (3) Charismatic Leadership Theory, and (4) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory. 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